Dengue y COVID-19: semejanzas y diferencias

Eric Martínez Torres, José Sabatier García

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Dengue y COVID-19 son dos enfermedades que amenazan a poblaciones enteras en la Región de Las Américas y coexisten en Cuba. Tienen semejanzas y diferencias que obligan a los médicos tratantes a hacer el diagnóstico diferencial entre ambas pues cada una puede ser causa de muerte. El objetivo del presente trabajo es contribuir al diagnóstico correcto de cada enfermo y su mejor atención. Se revisaron los conceptos actuales sobre etiología y patogenia de ambas, así como su cuadro clínico, cuidado y prevención. Tanto dengue como COVID-19 tienen un periodo febril y otro crítico, ambas son infecciones sistémicas y sus síntomas iniciales pueden ser parecidos entre sí y no ser los mismos del cuadro típico o característico posterior, particularmente en la edad pediátrica. El dengue define su curso en una semana y la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus tiene al menos tres semanas para su restablecimiento o evolución fatal. Cada semejanza y diferencia entre ambas fue objeto de análisis considerando los criterios nacionales e internacionales más actualizados haciendo énfasis en la mejor manera de tratar cada paciente para evitar complicaciones y muerte.

Palabras clave: dengue; COVID-19; diagnóstico diferencial; signos de alarma.

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